Neurotransmitters

Serotonin
​Serotonin is a key inhibitory neurotransmitter and is made from the amino acid tryptophan with the help of vitamin C, folate, magnesium, and vitamin B6. It regulates mood, behavior, sleep, appetite, sensory perception, and learning.

Serotonin

Dopamine
Dopamine is an excitatory neurotransmitter that regulates the pleasure/reward cycle, cognition, motivation, emotional responses, sensitivity and processing of information, motor control, memory, attention, and focus.

Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine is an excitatory neurotransmitter that regulates alertness, attention, focus, and is involved in the “fight or flight” response to stress.

Epinephrine
​Epinephrine is an excitatory neurotransmitter that regulates attentiveness and mental focus. It also regulates heart rate, blood pressure, and lipolysis (fat metabolism) and is involved in the “fight or flight” response to stress.

GABA 
​GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid) is an amino acid which acts as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. High levels of GABA indicate excitatory overload because of the increased demand for GABA to balance the surplus excitatory neurotransmitter activity. Low levels of GABA are associated with adrenal distress and dysfunction.

Taurine
​Taurine is an amino acid that can function as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. It supports the function of GABA which is the brain’s major inhibitory neurotransmitter. It has antioxidant properties so it is considered neuroprotective. Taurine is also important for cardiovascular function.

Glycine
Glycine is an amino acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. It regulates excitatory neurotransmission.

Glutamate
​Glutamate is an amino acid which acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory.

Histamine
​Histamine is an excitatory neurotransmitter that controls the sleep/wake cycle and inflammatory response (commonly associated with exposure to an allergen). It keeps the body awake and alert which is why antihistamines cause drowsiness & sleep. Histamine helps regulate norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine release.

PEA
​PEA (Phenylethylamine) is an excitatory neurotransmitter synthesized in the brain from the amino acid phenylalanine. It regulates mental acuity, alertness, attention, motivation, energy, stamina and isimportant for focus and concentration. It increases the actions of dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and serotonin.

DOPAC
​DOPAC is a breakdown product of the neurotransmitter dopamine. As such, DOPAC levels, when viewed in conjunction with dopamine levels, may provide insight into how the body processes neurotransmitters.

 

5-HIAA
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin. It is used to determine serotonin levels in the body.